どう解釈すべき? ― do a number on


UNDERMINING SECURITY seems to be a particular strength of Adobe as shown by the latest security bulletin put out by the firm.

In it, the firm delivers the shocking news that its Flash Player, Reader and Acrobat software have a vulnerability that could potentially allow hackers to gain complete control over computers. At this point, most will be thinking that only Microsoft Windows users are affected but no, this particular vulnerability does a number on Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, Android and even Solaris users.
(Lawrence Latif. Adobe security flaw undermines nearly every OS. The Inquirer. October 29, 2010.)

"do a number on"という成句だと思い、辞書を引いてみると、アメリカ英語の俗語ということで、



引用した記事でも、コンテクストからは似たような意味が取れるのですが、俗語とは言え、"a number"が何故そのような意味になるのかがいまいちピンと来ません。

前置詞"on"の次にくるのは対象となる人であったりモノであったりするのだと分かりますが、"a number"はその対象となる人やモノにとっては”良くない、有難くない”ことになります。それが、"a number"とは結びつかないのですが、俗語表現ということでそういうものである、ということになるのでしょうか?

ちなみに、American Heritage Dictionaryでは、

do a number on
Slang. To defeat, abuse, or humiliate in a calculated and thorough way.


”数字”を意味する"number"は、緻密な計算という意味での"number"と相当数という意味での"a number of..."との連想からこのような意味に発展したのだろうかと、想像の域を出ないのですが、仕方なく結論しました。


電子書籍になっても・・・ ― dog-ear




Ross likes the idea of being able to carry around more than one book in a small package. Blevis is starting to read books on his iPad, now that it's as easy to dog-ear and write in the margins virtually as it is on paper. Both said, though, that they didn't think cuddling in bed with the kids would be the same with a piece of technology.
(Kate Heartfield. The reading revolution. The Ottawa Citizen. October 28, 2010.)



いじめ ― bullying




Half of all high school students say they have bullied someone in the past year, with nearly as many saying they have been the victims of bullying, according to a new study released this week.

The study of the "Ethics of American Youth" released Tuesday surveyed more than 40,000 high school students and has been conducted every other year since 1992.

The study by the non-profit Josephson Institute of Ethics also found that one-third of all high school students say that violence is a big problem at their school, and nearly one in four say they do not feel very safe there. The problem is much less pronounced at private schools, where the figures drop to less than 10 percent in those two categories.
(Study: Half of high school students admit to bullying. CNN. October 27, 2010.)



手頃感 ― affordable




TOKYO — The popularity of the new "gyunabedon" beef dish released by Yoshinoya Co allowed the restaurant chain to post its first sales rise in 19 months in September with a 5.9% year-on-year gain on a same-store basis, its parent Yoshinoya Holdings Co said Thursday.

The new dish, a bowl of rice topped with boiled beef, vegetables and tofu cooked with sauce that was added to its menu in September, proved a hit mainly due to its affordable price of 280 yen per regular-size bowl. Yoshinoya has been engaged in a tough battle with rival beef-bowl restaurant chains Matsuya and Sukiya, which have been following a strategy of offering affordable dishes to attract customers.
(Low-priced dish gives Yoshinoya 1st sales rise in 19 months. Japan Today. October 8, 2010.)


デザートにはケーキかアイスクリームでしょう? ― from soup to nuts

"from soup to nuts"を辞書で調べると、コース料理の始まりと終わりを意味しており、”何から何まで”というような意味である、という解説があります。ディナーコースを想像してもらえると分かります、ということなのでしょう。


さて、"from soup"は分かるのですが、"to nuts"がいわゆる食事の最後に供されるデザート、というのはピンときません。"nuts"は木の実のことですが、デザートといったらケーキかアイスクリームでしょう?このフレーズが生まれた頃は、木の実がデザートだったのでしょうか?


ab ovo usque ad mala

というものがあります。こちら、”卵からリンゴまで”(from the egg to the apples)という意味で、古代ローマのコース料理は卵に始まり、デザートのリンゴに至るものだったようです。

Gluten is associated with numerous chronic illnesses and said to negatively affect over 90 million Americans. For those who need or want to eat gluten-free (dairy-free and allergy-free) help is finally here. With over 220 recipes from soup to nuts, and everything in between, these simple-to-make recipes will grace the table for years.
(Complete Idiot's Guide for Gluten Free Cooking in Bookstores on November 2, 2010. The San Francisco Chronicle. October 25, 2010.)



今週は韓国へ!(5) ― 38th parallel



英語では、38th parallelというそうですが、知りませんでした。"38th parallel north"ともいうようです。

Korea was colonized by Japan in 1910. At the end of World War II in 1945, the peninsula was divided along the 38th parallel by the great powers, with the Soviet Union installing leadership in the North, and the United States placing leadership in the South. Designed to be a temporary arrangement at the time, it ossified during the Cold War and still pertains more than six decades later.
(Andrew Salmon. What is life like inside North Korea? CNN. October 10, 2010.)



今週は韓国へ!(4) ― makgeolli



Korean rice wine




Pajeon, traditional South Korean pancake, kimchi and a smaller bowl of noodles -- all soon washed down with a bottle of makgeolli.
(Gregory Curley. Eating with the locals on Seoul’s nocturnal food streets. CNN International. October 11, 2010.)


今週は韓国へ!(3) ― jeogori



chima jeogori



・ チマ(chima)とは、スカートにあたる部分
・ チョゴリ(jeogori)とは、上着に相当するもの


By the time Kim died in 1994, the North had been rebuilt into a modern, industrial state. But the rot was already setting in. The centralised economy was grinding to a halt, and aid slowed as Pyongyang's Stalinist allies switched to capitalism. Then, in the mid-1990s, famine struck.

Only the messianic cult built around Kim stopped the regime from collapsing. His son deepened the cult, ordering hundreds of murals, giant statues and monuments built and his body entombed in a glass coffin in the Kumsusan Memorial Palace. His portrait hangs in every office and home.

On a visit to the palace last week, workers wearing their Sunday best – ill-fitting suits for the men, traditional jeogori for the women – bowed and filed past his sarcophagus in the Great Hall of Lamentation. A piped dirge played throughout the palace and a taped commentator indicated the proper response: "awestruck silence".
(David McNeil. North Korea closes ranks to anoint Kim's son as future leader. The Independent. September 28, 2010.)


今週は韓国へ!(2) ― taekwondo



Yesterday, Mansfield's Tony Grisman beat reigning world champion Mohammad Motamed of Iran to win the men's -68kg category, with further gold medals for Bianca Walkden (women's +73kg) and world number one Aaron Cook (men's -80kg) making it a triple success for British taekwondo.
(International Taekwondo Championships: Jade Jones eliminated in quarter-finals. The Telegraph. September 27, 2010.)


tae 跆   ”脚による打撃、足技”
kwon 拳   ”拳(こぶし)による打撃、手技”
do 道   ”道(剣道や柔道などの道に同じ)”


今週は韓国へ! ― kimchi





SEOUL, South Korea — Even in the middle of a loud and bustling outdoor market, her voice drops to a whisper when she agrees to reveal the two secret ingredients that make her kimchi so popular with her customers.


But recent sales have been disappointing, Mrs. Kim said, because of an unavoidable spike in the price of her kimchi, the fiery and pungent Korean national dish that typically combines cabbage, radishes, red chili peppers, garlic and salt. The price for one head of long-leafed Napa cabbage grown in Korea has skyrocketed in the past month, to as much as $14, from about $2.50. Domestic radishes have tripled in price, to more than $5 apiece, and the price of garlic has more than doubled.
(Rising Cost of Kimchi Alarms Koreans. The New York Times. October 15, 2010.)


napa cabbage
Chinese cabbage


"napa cabbage"の"napa"は、日本語の菜っ葉(nappa)から来ているそうですから、面白いですね。


kim chee

などですが、コーパスによれば、"kimchi"が最も使われているようです。(発生頻度としては、kimchiに続いて、kimchee、kim chee、の順のようです。)

Korean marinated cabbage、またはKorean pickled cabbage、と表現されることもあるようです。


ハロウィーン特集(5) ― raven



Black birds, ravens and crows get a lot of love during Halloween season, as they should, because you can have a lot of fun decorating with these dark-feathered friends.
(ABC News. October 14, 2010.)




ハロウィーン特集(4) ― jack-o'-lantern




ハロウィーンのランタンがなぜ、"jack-o'-lantern"と呼ばれるのか、については、Wikipediaに詳しい説明があります。アイルランドの民間伝承によるもののようですが、"jack-o'-lantern"とは鬼火、あるいはきつね火(ignis fatuus)と呼ばれる怪奇現象(?)のことで、Jackという悪知恵の働く男が死んで成仏することもできず、地獄にも行けず、鬼火のような形で地上をさ迷うことになったことに因むようです。(伝承の内容はバリエーションがあるようです。)

You probably have a few pumpkins at home by now and are planning on carving them with the kids for Halloween. If you don’t yet, you can pick one here.

When you do dig into that big, orange gourd, make sure to take a photo and enter your pumpkin masterpiece in our 1st annual Jack O’ Lantern contest.
(Barista Kids 1st Annual Jack O’ Lantern Contest. Barista Kids. October 12, 2010.)


ハロウィーン特集(3) ― spooktacular




spooktacular event
spooktacular costume


Spook-tacular costumes
Kids get creative with Halloween attire

Amy Taylor, of Marietta, sometimes makes costumes for her four children, ages 2, 8, 9 and 11.

Last year, 11-year-old Brooke wanted to dress up like a zombie prom queen, so Amy scoured her home for materials to use for the costume. She came up with an old dress for Brooke to wear and a torn-up pillowcase for a sash.

"I ripped it up to make it look like she came out of the grave," Taylor said.

Brooke also wore a tiara and her hair was filled with leaves and moss Amy rolled in the dirt.
(The Marietta Times. October 9, 2010.)


ハロウィーン特集(2) ― Sabbath



CARDSTON - Costumed kiddies scampering through neighbourhoods in search of candy is a sugar-filled rite of passage for most children every Oct. 31.

But this year, some southern Alberta communities are ignoring the calendar and celebrating Halloween a day earlier in deference to religious concerns over having the holiday on a Sunday.

Cardston town council agreed to ask citizens to trick or treat the night before Halloween and moved town-organized events to Saturday night, said assistant administrator Jeff Shaw.

"Of course, there's no bylaw to that effect," Shaw said of the southern Alberta community of 3,500 people, well known for its gleaming white Mormon Temple.

"But it's asked for residents to celebrate it on a Saturday to reflect religious belief and the observance of the Sabbath day by the majority of the residents," he said.
(Mormon towns plan to celebrate Halloween a day early. Calgary Herald. October 12, 2010.)





ハロウィーン特集 ― throw a party






"throw a party"という表現をご存知でしょうか?毎度不勉強の私は知りませんでした。"throw"と言えば、”投げる”、”放る”くらいにしか理解していませんでしたので。

American Heritage Dictionaryによれば、

To arrange or give (a party, for example).


There's no better time to throw a creative party than Halloween. Whether it's for kids, teens or adults, eHow.com (http://www.ehow.com/) has tips on how to do it. From haunted houses and scary Halloween decorations, to outrageous theme parties and hayrides, throw a party your guests will never forget. Start by picking a theme for the party, then plan the decorations - like traditional jack-o-lanterns, homemade, scary spiders or frightening ghosts - and don't forget to set the mood with some scary music.
(How to throw a Halloween party for kids, teens and adults. The Sacramento Bee. October 11, 2010.)

筆者はアメリカ短期滞在中に同僚のハロウィーンパーティに招待されたことがあるのですが、なるほど近隣一帯で”パーティ”が企画されており、日本で言えば子供会みたいなものにあたるのだと思いますが、"trick or treat"も既にアレンジされているようでした。



ロータリー ― roundabout




I agree with the people protesting the proposed Ironwood-Auten roundabout.

I used the roundabout near the South Bend Regional Airport once trying to get back on Mayflower Road going home. I nearly got into an accident with a semi that was having a difficult time trying to get on. I was never able to get to Mayflower Road and wound up on Lincoln Way. I avoid it and any other roundabouts.

The next time using the same roundabout coming off Mayflower Road going to the airport, I discovered a second roundabout entering the airport. Leaving the airport I was nearly sideswiped by a automobile that did not slow down. The cars behind it were also speeding.

I'm sure putting stop signs or signal lights are more cost effective than roundabouts. That money could be used more effectively improving the roads we already have.

Roundabouts are a joke and so is the person suggesting them.
(Roundabout a joke but who's laughing? South Bend Tribune. October 8, 2010.)

なお、"roundabout"は、アメリカでは"traffic circle"と表現されることもあるようです。また、"gyratory system"といわれることもあるそうです。(円や螺旋を意味する、"gyro-"を語根に持つ単語です。)


路肩 ― hard shoulder

"hard shoulder"という表現は主にイギリス英語で、アメリカでは単に"shoulder"というようです。

Firefighters were called to the junction of the A3(M) and A27, in Havant, yesterday after reports were received of a burning Volvo on the roadside.

The car lost power as it was being driven and had to be guided onto the hard shoulder.

The driver and passenger were able to escape before the blaze started, and at 1.55pm two fire appliances attended the scene and quickly extinguished the fire.
(Car blaze drama on dual carriageway near Havant. Portsmouth News. October 7, 2010.)

ところで、Wikipediaを見ていると、"soft shoulder"なる概念(未舗装の路肩で、hard shoulderよりもやや危険)もあるし、バス専用の路肩(bus-only shoulder)という概念もあるようです。



陸橋 ― overpass; flyover



n. 1. A passage, roadway, or bridge that crosses above another roadway or thoroughfare
(American Heritage Dictionary of English Language.)


SAN JOSE, Calif.—A man has been arrested after authorities say he kidnapped his ex-girlfriend and their 11-month-old baby in San Jose, led authorities on a 75-mile chase and then jumped off a freeway overpass.

San Jose police Officer Jose Garcia says the woman and child were forced into a pickup truck in the Overfelt neighborhood Saturday night.

The San Jose Mercury News says a nearly two-hour chase began that involved several freeways and continued through Daly City, Colma and Woodside before the driver intentionally crashed on Interstate 280.

Garcia says the driver briefly held the woman at knifepoint, then leaped off a freeway overpass and landed 30 feet below.
(San Jose Mercury News. October 4, 2010.)


BRACKEN RIDGE: Work on a flyover at the Telegraph Rd level crossing at Bracken Ridge is unlikely to start before 2016, despite plans for a bus station next to the crossing as part of the Northern Busway.

On Tuesday a traffic camera captured a near miss between a train and a vehicle, prompting additional concerns about the safety of the crossing.

A spokesman for Transport Minister Rachel Nolan did not rule out motorists having to wait until 2026 - the proposed year of the completion of the busway - for a proposed flyover at the crossing.
(Telegraph Rd crossing improve years away. Northside Chronicle. October 6, 2010.)


ガードレール ― crash barrier


ガードレールは日本語でもカタカナ表記されますが、英語でも"guardrail"は通用するようです。ところが、"crash barrier"という単語もガードレールの意味で用いられ、ひょっとしてガードレールは和製英語かも知れないとも誤解されがちですが、"guardrail"は主にアメリカ英語で、"crash barrier"はイギリス英語で用いられるといってよいようです。

Almost 100ft of crash barrier was badly damaged when a woman lost control of her car.

The accident happened on the northbound junction two of the A3(M) in Horndean at 1.20pm yesterday.

Engineers from the Highways Agency have closed lane two in both directions while they fixed it. They are expected to finish at 7pm today.

Commuters are urged to be patient during rush hour.

The woman managed to free herself from the Hyundai car and police said she did not suffer serious injuries.
(Woman uninjured in A3 crash. Portsmouth News. October 4, 2010.)


中央分離帯 ― central reservation; median strip







イギリス英語とアメリカ英語で異なるようです。イギリスでは、"central reservation"と言います。

Police were called to reports of the crash at junction 18 of the clockwise carriageway at 1515 BST.

The vehicle hit the central reservation and overturned, trapping the driver in the cab. The 47-year-old was taken to hospital later.

The clockwise carriageway was closed while debris was cleared, leading to tailbacks.

Part of the operation involved clearing a large amount of liquid food waste from the carriageway.
(M60 rush hour queues as lorry overturn. BBC News. September 22, 2010.)


ちなみに、アメリカでは、中央分離帯は"median strip"といいます。

New Hampshire State Police believe four men were heading home to Southern New Hampshire when their car went off the road and crashed into a wooded median area, killing all four men sometime this weekend.

But why the car went off the road, and when it skidded into the wooded median strip on I-293 south remains a mystery, Trooper Lawrence Lundt, who is in charge of the investigation said today.

"There is a lot we don't know,'' he said in a telephone interview today. "This investigation is in its nascent stages.''
(Cause of N.H. crash that killed four remains a mystery, police say. The Boston Globe. September 13, 2010.)


禁煙の話題(5) ― stub out


Finland Banishes Marlboros From Shelves to Stub Out Smoking

Marlboro Man lit up his last cigarette on Finnish TV screens in 1978. Soon, his smokes will be out of plain sight in stores and selling tobacco to Marlboro Jr. may land the retailer in jail.

Finland will push tobacco sales under the counter in shops as a new law comes into effect in stages, starting today. The Nordic nation, one of the first to ban tobacco adverts, is the first to target an end to smoking through legal means.

“It’s a warning to the people who want to invest, or work in, or be a part of the tobacco industry,” said Ismo Tuominen, an official who helped draft the new law at the Helsinki-based Health Ministry. “This is a warning that we are trying to get rid of this business in Finland once and for all.”
(Bloomberg. October 1, 2010.)